On December 20, 2016, President Obama announced that he was using his authority under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. §§ 1331 et seq.) to prohibit drilling and oil exploration in certain areas of the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans. President Obama’s action was coordinated with Canada, where Prime Minister Trudeau announced a similar ban in Canada’s Arctic waters. The action will ban drilling in approximately 115 million acres of the Arctic Ocean, which represents 98% of federally owned Arctic waters, and 3.8 million acres of the Atlantic coast around a series of sensitive coral canyons.
The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (“OCS Act”) was passed in 1953 to protect the waters above the outer continental shelf – submerged lands beginning 3 miles from shore and extending to the 200-mile international-waters boundary. 43 U.S.C. § 1331(a). The OCS Act states that:
"The outer Continental Shelf is a vital national resource reserve held by the Federal Government for the public, which should be made available for expeditious and orderly development, subject to environmental safeguards, in a manner which is consistent with the maintenance of competition and other national needs." 43 U.S.C. § 1332(3).
On December 7, 2016, EPA published a proposed rule to ban certain uses of trichloroethylene (TCE) under section 6(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) due to risks to human health from those uses. The proposed rule would prohibit the manufacture (including import), processing, distribution in commerce and commercial use of TCE for aerosol degreasing and for spot cleaning in dry cleaning facilities.
As we previously reported on this blog, EPA recently included TCE on its list of the first 10 chemicals it will evaluate broadly for potential risks to human health and the environment pursuant to requirements of the 2016 TSCA Reform Act. In a 2014 risk assessment, EPA identified serious risks to workers and consumers associated with TCE uses, concluding that the chemical can cause a range of adverse health effects, including cancer, development and neurotoxicological effects, and toxicity to the liver.
Several news outlets are reporting that President-elect Donald Trump will nominate Oklahoma Attorney General Scott Pruitt to serve as the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mr. Pruitt has been the Attorney General of Oklahoma since his election to that post in 2011. In his role as Oklahoma Attorney General, Mr. Pruitt has been active in litigation challenging current EPA regulations in court, most significant of which have been challenges to the Obama Administration’s Clean Power Plan.
Mr. Pruitt and Oklahoma are part of the coalition of 28 states challenging EPA’s regulation of greenhouse gas emissions from existing power plants – a key component of the Clean Power Plan – in the case of West Virginia v. EPA, Case No. 15-1363. This case is currently pending in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit, which recently heard nearly seven hours of oral arguments and is expected to issue a ruling soon.
Environmental groups have been quick to react to Mr. Pruitt’s apparent nomination. Sierra Club Executive Director, Michael Brune released a statement critical of the pick:
Having Scott Pruitt in charge of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is like putting an arsonist in charge of fighting fires…We strongly urge Senators, who are elected to represent and protect the American people, to stand up for families across the nation and oppose this nomination.
Mr. Pruitt’s appointment must be confirmed by the U.S. Senate. Several Democratic Senators have already raised concerns over his nomination, including Senator Brian Schatz (D-HI), who tweeted that he “will do everything I can to stop this.”
On November 29, 2016, EPA announced the first 10 chemicals it will evaluate for potential risks to human health and the environment under the new Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Reform Act, which was signed into law back in June. The TSCA Reform Act required EPA to publish this list of priority chemicals and begin the risk evaluation process on these chemicals by December 19, 2016. By the end of 2019, EPA will be required to have at least 20 chemical risk evaluations in process at any given time.
The first 10 chemicals to be evaluated by EPA are:
Cyclic Aliphatic Bromide Cluster
Pigment Violet 29
Tetrachloroethylene, also known as perchloroethylene
This list will be published in the Federal Register in the coming weeks, at which point it will trigger several statutory deadlines for these 10 chemicals:
- EPA must release a scoping document for each chemical within 6 months.
- EPA must complete risk evaluations for each chemical within three years.
- If the risk evaluation determines that a chemical presents an unreasonable risk to humans and the environment, EPA must mitigate that risk within two years.
More information on the TSCA Reform Act and EPA’s recent actions can be found on EPA’s website.
Section 211 of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to set annual Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) volume requirements for four categories of biofuels: cellulosic biofuel, biomass-based diesel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel. On November 23, 2016, EPA finalized rules under the RFS program, increasing the amount of renewable fuels that must blended into gasoline and diesel fuel in 2017.
Under the new RFS rules, total renewable fuel volumes will grow by 1.2 billion gallons from 2016 to 2017, a 6 percent increase.
Source: EPA website.
In the final rule, EPA describes the significance of renewable fuels, currently and in the future:
Today, nearly all of the approximately 142 billion gallons of gasoline used for transportation purposes contains 10 percent ethanol (E10), and a substantial portion of diesel fuel contains biodiesel. Renewable fuels represent an opportunity for the U.S. to move away from fossil fuels towards a set of lower lifecycle GHG transportation fuels, and the RFS program provides incentives for these lower lifecycle GHG fuels to grow and compete in the market.
The final RFS rules have been submitted to the Federal Register and will be published in the coming weeks. More information about the RFS program and the final RFS rule can be found on the EPA website.
On October 28, 2016, EPA announced that EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy signed the final Hazardous Waste Generator Improvements Rule. The rule will be published in the Federal Register in the coming weeks, and will become effective six months after it is published.
According to EPA, the objectives of the Hazardous Waste Generator Improvements Rule are to:
- Reorganize existing regulations to make them more user-friendly and improve generator compliance.
- Provide greater flexibility in how hazardous waste is managed.
- Enhance the safety of facilities that create hazardous waste and the response capabilities of emergency responders by improving risk communication.
The new rule includes more than 60 changes to existing hazardous waste generator regulations and will impact between 424,099 – 676,890 industrial entities.
A few key changes in the Hazardous Waste Generator Improvements Rule include:
On October 25, 2016, Judge Charles Breyer of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California approved a $14.7 billion partial settlement in the Volkswagen “defeat device” MDL litigation. The settlement resolves injunctive relief claims brought by the United States and the State of California, as well as consumer class action claims related to Volkswagen’s 2.0 liter vehicles.
The United States had sued Volkswagen (and its subsidiaries, including Audi and Porsche) in January 2016, alleging that over 500,000 vehicles sold by Volkswagen in the United States from 2009 through 2016 contained software, known as a “defeat device”, that senses when the vehicle is being tested for compliance with emission standards. The defeat devices produced compliant emission results during testing but then reduced the effectiveness of emission control systems during normal driving. The United States alleged that the defeat devices cause increased NOx emissions up to 40 times allowable levels in 2.0 liter vehicles and 9 times allowable levels in 3.0 liter vehicles.
On October 15, 2016, representatives from 170 countries concluded negotiations in Kigali, Rwanda that resulted in a legally binding accord to limit hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in an effort to combat climate change. HFCs are chemical coolants used in air conditioners and refrigerants. Chemical companies developed HFCs in the late 1980s after the Montreal Protocol banned ozone-depleting coolants called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). HFCs do not harm the ozone layer, but they have 1,000 times the heat trapping potential of carbon dioxide.
The Kigali accord is an amendment to the 1987 Montreal Protocol (which was ratified by the U.S. Senate during the Regan Administration). Thus, the Kigali accord has the legal force of a treaty without further ratification by the current U.S. Senate. Although HFCs make up a small percentage of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere, because of their extremely high warming potential, the reductions called for in the Kigali accord will lead to the reduction of the equivalent of 70 billion tons of carbon dioxide, which is approximately two times the amount of carbon dioxide emitted globally each year.
The State of Washington and the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation are trying to expand the reach of CERCLA, but have been blocked, once again, by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. The case of Pakootas v. Teck Cominco Metals, Ltd., Case No. 15-35228 (9th Cir. Panel decision July 27, 2016), involves claims by the State of Washington and the Tribes against a smelter located in British Columbia. In August, a three-judge panel of the Ninth Circuit ruled in favor of the defendants in this case. Yesterday, the full Ninth Circuit denied the plaintiffs’ petition for rehearing.
The case involves hazardous air emissions (lead, arsenic, cadmium and mercury), which were emitted from the smelter’s smokestack, carried by wind, and deposited on the Upper Columbia River Superfund Site in Washington. Plaintiffs maintained that such air emissions constituted “disposal” of hazardous waste under CERCLA, thus the smelter had arranged for the disposal of hazardous waste pursuant to CERCLA and was a responsible party at the Superfund Site.
As we previously reported, two weeks ago, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced that more than 55 countries, including the United States and China, had formally joined the Paris Climate Agreement, officially crossing one of the two thresholds required to bring the Agreement into force. The Paris Climate Agreement was adopted by the 195 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at a conference known as COP21 in December 2015. It will enter into force 30 days after at least 55 countries, accounting for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, deposit their instruments of ratification.
On Wednesday, October 5th, the UN announced that the European Union and 10 additional countries have deposited their instruments of ratification. Now, countries that have ratified the Paris Climate Agreement account for more than 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, surpassing the second requirement for the Agreement to enter force. Thus, the Paris Climate Agreement will enter into force on November 4, 2016.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon made a statement to mark this “momentous occasion”:
“Global momentum for the Paris Agreement to enter into force in 2016 has been remarkable. What once seemed unthinkable is now unstoppable.
Strong international support for the Paris Agreement entering into force is testament to the urgency for action, and reflects the consensus of governments that robust global cooperation is essential to meet the climate challenge.”
The Paris Climate Agreement calls on countries to combat climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low-carbon future, as well as to adapt to the increasing impacts of climate change. Specifically, governments must take actions to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius, and to strive for 1.5 degrees Celsius. The Paris Climate Agreement also requires developed countries fund $100 billion in investments to assist developing countries meet the Agreement’s goals.
More information about the Paris Climate Agreement is available at the UNFCCC website.
On Tuesday, September 27, 2016, an en banc panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit heard nearly seven hours of oral arguments in one of the most significant environmental cases of the year: West Virginia v. EPA, Case No. 15-1363. This case involves more than 100 parties, who have filed dozens of petitions challenging EPA’s Clean Power Plan and its regulation of greenhouse gas emissions from existing power plants. Challengers include 27 States – led by West Virginia and Texas – labor unions, rural electric cooperatives, industry and trade groups, and private companies. Four intervenor briefs and 18 amici curiae briefs have been offered in support of the Clean Power Plan, by parties including 18 States, Washington D.C., utilities and power companies, environmental organizations, and former EPA administrators. Among other things, challengers argue that EPA exceeded its authority under the Section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act by including electricity-shifting measures and “Outside the Fenceline” requirements in the Clean Power Plan.
As we previously reported, in February 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court granted a stay of EPA’s Clean Power Plan. The stay was highly unusual because the case is still before the D.C. Circuit Court, which denied a request for a stay in January 2016. Adding to the unusual nature of this case, the D.C. Circuit, on its own motion, decided to hear the case en banc in the first instance, which is why the full court sat for oral arguments on September 27th. Notably, Judge Merrick Garland did not sit for oral arguments and will likely not take part in any decision, as he has recused himself from all decisions of the D.C. Circuit while he awaits resolution of his appointment by President Obama to the U.S. Supreme Court. The remaining 10 judges in the D.C. Circuit, Judges Henderson, Rogers, Tatel, Brown, Griffith, Kavanaugh, Srinivasan, Millett, Pillard, Wilkins, took part in the oral arguments.
EPA’s defense of the Clean Power Plan went well during the oral arguments, with apparent support from the D.C. Circuit’s six democrat-appointed judges. The D.C. Circuit will likely expedite its decision in this widely-followed case, with an opinion expected in late 2016 or early 2017. Regardless of the outcome in the D.C. Circuit, the case will almost certainly be appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court for final resolution.
Audio recording of the oral argument is available on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit website.
During the annual meeting of the United Nations General Assembly in New York City, on Wednesday, September 21, 2016, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon announced that more than 55 countries have formally joined the Paris Agreement on climate change, officially crossing one of the two thresholds required to bring the Agreement into force. At the annual meeting, 31 additional countries deposited their instruments of ratification for the Agreement, bringing the total to 60 countries that together represent more than 47.5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Earlier this month, China and the United States, the world’s two largest greenhouse gas emitters, joined the Agreement.
The Paris Climate Agreement was adopted by the 195 Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at a conference known as COP21 in December 2015. The Paris Climate Agreement seeks to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees Celsius, and to strive for 1.5 degrees Celsius. The Paris Climate Agreement was signed on April 22, 2016, by 175 countries at the largest, single-day signing ceremony in history. It will enter into force 30 days after at least 55 countries, accounting for 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions, deposit their instruments of ratification. Following today’s UN meeting, formal approval from countries representing 7.5% in global emissions is still needed.
Usually, international treaties of this size and complexity take years to come into effect, while the Paris Climate Agreement is close to achieving full legal force only 9 months after it was adopted. At least some of the urgency behind the ratification of the Agreement is the fact that Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump has vowed to pull the United States out of the Paris Climate Agreement if he is elected. If the Agreement comes into full legal force before the next president takes office, it would take four years for the United States to withdraw under the formal procedures of the Agreement, and the United States would be bound by the Agreement in the interim.
More information about the Paris Climate Agreement and a video of Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon’s remarks is available here.
On September 13th, from 5 pm to 7 pm, the CBA Environmental Law Committee, CBA Young Lawyers Section Environmental Law Committee, ISBA Environmental Law Section, and ABA Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources will be hosting a networking reception for environmental attorneys at Jenner & Block's offices in Chicago. Complimentary food and drinks will be provided thanks to the event’s sponsors. Jenner & Block partner Allison Torrence is the Chair of the CBA Environmental Law Committee and will be giving brief welcome remarks.
Details for this event are below. If you would like to join us at this reception, please RSVP here.
Environmental Attorney Reception
September 13, 2016 | 5:00 pm to 7:00 pm
Jenner & Block Conference Center | 45th Floor | 353 N. Clark St. | Chicago, IL 60654
Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative Requests Hearing on City of Waukesha Lake Michigan Water Diversion
On August 19, 2016, the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Cities Initiative (the GLSL Cities Initiative) requested a hearing before the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Council (the Compact Council) regarding the Compact Council’s June 21, 2016 decision to approve the City of Waukesha’s application for a diversion of Great Lakes Basin Water.
The Compact Council was established in 2008 pursuant to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact (the Compact). The Compact details how the States will work together to manage and protect the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The Compact Council is comprised of the Governors of each of the eight Great Lakes States (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin).
The Compact prohibits diversions of Great Lakes water outside of the Great Lakes Basin, with limited exceptions. One exception allows a community that is not located within the Great Lakes Basin, but is located within a county that is partly within the Great Lakes Basin, such as the City of Waukesha, to apply for a diversion of Great Lakes water if that community can meet strict conditions. The City of Waukesha submitted an application for a diversion of Great Lakes water in 2011, and a revised application in 2013. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources approved Waukesha’s diversion application and sent the application to the Compact Council in January 2015. The Compact Council approved Waukesha’s Great Lakes diversion application, with conditions, on June 21, 2016.
The GLSL Cities Initiative is a binational coalition of over 120 U.S. and Canadian mayors and local officials, representing over 17 million people, working to advance the protection and restoration of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River. The GLSL Cities Initiative maintains that the Compact Council’s decision to approve Waukesha’s diversion of Lake Michigan water fails to protect the integrity of the Compact. The request for hearing states that:
Allowing a Diversion that is contrary to the strict requirements of the Compact threatens the resource that provides drinking water for 40 million people and is the foundation upon which a strong regional economy is based, to the detriment of the members of the GLSL Cities Initiative.
To date, the Compact Council has not responded to the request for hearing.
On September 1, 2016, Jenner & Block is hosting a CLE program titled Overview of Critical Litigation Issues for Environmental Practitioners in our Chicago offices at Noon. The program will feature two of our environmental litigation partners as speakers, Steven Siros and Allison Torrence. Together, they will provide environmental litigation updates addressing new developments related to the Clean Power Plan, “waters of the United States,” emerging contaminants, and CERCLA cost recovery/contribution claims.
2016 Democratic Party Platform: Combat Climate Change, Build a Clean Energy Economy, and Secure Environmental Justice
Last week, we examined the key environmental issues raised in the 2016 Republican platform. Now that the political focus has shifted from Cleveland to Philadelphia, where Democrats are holding their convention, we will examine what the Democratic Party has to say about its environmental priorities in the 2016 Democratic Party Platform. One of the Democratic Party platform’s 13 main sections is entitled “Combat Climate Change, Build a Clean Energy Economy, and Secure Environmental Justice.” Environmental issues are also raised in the section titled “Confront Global Threats”, which discusses “Global Climate Leadership.”
In the platform’s preamble, the Democrats state that:
Democrats believe that climate change poses a real and urgent threat to our economy, our national security, and our children’s health and futures, and that Americans deserve the jobs and security that come from becoming the clean energy superpower of the 21st century.
Other key positions from the Democratic environmental platform include:
On Monday, Republicans gathered in Cleveland to kick off the Republican National Convention and adopt the official 2016 platform of the Republican Party. One of the platform’s six main sections is titled “American Natural Resources: Agriculture, Energy, and the Environment.” Republicans summarize their environmental platform by stating:
“We firmly believe environmental problems are best solved by giving incentives for human ingenuity and the development of new technologies, not through top-down, command-and-control regulations that stifle economic growth and cost thousands of jobs.”
Key positions from the Republican environmental platform include:
On June 22, 2016, President Obama signed the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act (a/k/a the TSCA Reform Act) into law. The TSCA Reform Act received bipartisan support in both the House and Senate, passing both bodies by wide margins. The TSCA Reform Act is a major overhaul of the 40-year-old chemical law, which had fallen short of its goal to protect people and the environment from dangerous chemicals.
In an article posted on EPA’s blog, Administrator Gina McCarthy praised the TSCA Reform Act, stating:
The updated law gives EPA the authorities we need to protect American families from the health effects of dangerous chemicals. I welcome this bipartisan bill as a major step forward to protect Americans’ health. And at EPA, we’re excited to get to work putting it into action.
Key provisions of the TSCA Reform Act include:
Late on June 7, 2016, the Senate voted in favor of the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act (HR 2576) (a/k/a the TSCA Reform Act). The TSCA Reform Act regulates the manufacture, transportation, sale and use of thousands of chemicals, and provides a much needed update to the 40 year old Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The TSCA Reform Act had been passed by the House in May, with overwhelming support. It was held up recently in the Senate by an objection from Senator Rand Paul (R-Ky.), who argued that he needed more time to review the complex new law. But, Senator Paul dropped his objection on June 7th, and a vote was quickly held.
The TSCA Reform Act is widely seen as an improvement over the outdated TSCA. The American Chemical Counsel praised the TSCA Reform Act as “truly historic”. Others, however, were disappointed that the TSCA Reform Act preempted state laws on chemical safety, instead of setting a floor and letting state’s set more stringent standards.
President Obama is expected to sign the TSCA Reform Act into law very soon, as the White House had endorsed the Act after it passed the House of Representatives in May.
Attempts to reform the outdated Toxic Substances Control Act (“TSCA”) have been working their way through Congress for years with no success. But as of this week, legislators in Washington have announced that they are closer than ever before to finalizing and approving a TSCA reform bill.
Last year, the House and Senate each passed their own versions of a TSCA reform bill. The two versions contained significant differences, including on how they managed preemption of State chemical laws. Then, on May 17, 2016, House and Senate leaders issued the following statement on the current status of TSCA reform:
House and Senate negotiators are finalizing a TSCA reform bill that represents an improvement over both the House and Senate bills in key respects. Current federal law only provides very limited protection. We are hopeful that Congress will be taking action soon on reforming this important environmental law.
While some House Democrats, including Rep. Frank Pallone Jr. (D-NJ), Ranking Member of the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, believe the TSCA reform bill does not do enough, many high-profile Democrats and Republicans have signed on to the compromise bill, including U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Ranking Member Barbara Boxer (D-CA), Senator Cory Booker (D-NJ), House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton (R-MI), and U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee Chairman Jim Inhofe (R-OK).
The Congressional leaders are confident that the compromise bill will be up for a vote next week and could potentially be sent to the President for signing before Memorial Day. Be sure to follow the Corporate Environmental Lawyer Blog for analysis of any developments with the TSCA reform bill.
Approximately 700 participants, including leaders from government, business, finance, academia, philanthropy and civil society, will meet in Washington, DC on May 5-6, to attend the Climate Action 2016 Summit. Seven organizations have come together to jointly co-host the summit, providing this diverse group with the information, connections and tools they need to lead effective implementation in a new climate regime.
The co-hosts of the Summit are:
- E. Mr. Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations
- Jim Yong Kim, President of the World Bank Group
- Michael R. Bloomberg, UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for Cities and Climate Change; Founding Partner, Compact of Mayors
- Naoko Ishii, Chief Executive Officer, Global Environment Facility
- Judith Rodin, President, Rockefeller Foundation
- Peter Bakker, Chief Executive Officer, World Business Council on Sustainable Development
- Nigel Topping, Chief Executive Officer, We Mean Business
- Wallace Loh, President, University of Maryland
The goal of the Summit is to strengthen the multi-stakeholder approach to climate implementation. The summit will address how to deliver on climate commitments and embed the transformation agenda across the globe in government, key sectors and among the general population. At the same time, the summit will focus on near-term implementation actions and long-term implementation needs. These will focus on City and Sub-national implementation; Transport; Land-use; Energy; Resilience/Adaptation; and Analysis and Tools to Support Decision Making.
More information about Climate Action 2016 is available here.
The United Nations has announced that up to 155 countries, including the United States, are planning to sign the Paris Climate Agreement at the Ceremony for Opening Signature, on Earth Day, April 22, 2016. The ceremony will take place at UN headquarters in New York. With over 150 world leaders set to sign the Paris Climate Agreement, the signing is expected to be the largest single signing of an international agreement in world history.
For more information about the signing ceremony and the Paris Climate Agreement, visit the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change website.
On Thursday, April 7, 2016, Young Professionals in Energy (Chicago) is hosting an event titled “Hydraulic Fracturing in Illinois: What Has The National Frenzy Meant For Our State?” at Jenner & Block’s Chicago office. The event will be moderated by Jenner & Block attorney and YPE Board Member, Alexander Bandza, and will feature presentations from Jenny Cassel, Staff Attorney at Environmental Law and Policy Center, and Nancy Loeb, Director of the Environmental Advocacy Center, Northwestern University School of Law.
For more information and to RSVP click here.
On March 21, 2016, the Flint Water Advisory Task Force (FWATF) issued its Final Report regarding the Flint water crisis. The FWATF is a 5-member task force appointed by Governor Rick Snyder and charged with conducting an independent review of the contamination of the Flint water supply. The FWATF report contains some harsh criticism of government actions that caused and exacerbated the Flint water crisis, concluding that "the causes of the crisis lie primarily at the feet of the state by virtue of its agencies' failures and its appointed emergency managers' misjudgments." The FWATF lays much blame on the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) as well as on the state-appointed emergency manager who had replaced local representative decision-making in Flint and made the decision to switch Flint's water supply to the Flint River.
The report contains 36 findings and 44 recommendations.
Key findings include:
March 22, 2016, is World Water Day. World Water Day is an international observance created by the United Nations in 1993, designed to provide an opportunity to learn more about water related issues, be inspired to tell others, and take action to make a difference. World Water Day has been held annually since 1993. This year's theme for World Water Day is: Better Water, Better Jobs.
In recognition of World Water Day, The Corporate Environmental Lawyer blog will feature a series of blogs next week focused on water-related issues and developments. Please follow our blog to learn more about these important issues.
To learn more about World Water Day, visit the UN World Water Day Website.