As has been the case for the past several years, we are pleased to present a special blog posting commemorating Earth Day. This year, Earth Day is Saturday, April 22, 2017 and the Earth Day campaign is "Environmental and Climate Literacy". This campaign is focused on working to ensure that the general public is educated and literate with respect to environmental issues. For more information regarding this campaign, please click here.
The very first Earth Day, which was held in America in 1970 following a devastating oil spill, is credited as the beginning of the modern environmental movement. Now, more than forty years later, Earth Day is a global event with festivals, rallies and other events will be taking place at various locations throughout the world.
In special commemoration of Earth Day 2017, we have linked to the following two "TED" talks which we hope that you will find interesting. The first "TED" talk (click here) focuses on the Great Lakes, which represent one of the largest collections of fresh water in the world. The second "TED" talk is done by renowned architect Jeanne Gang and focuses on blending nature into architectural projects (click here). Happy Earth Day 2017.
A recent case reminds us that not all communications between lawyers and environmental consultants are privileged despite best efforts to make them so. In Valley Forge Ins. V. Hartford Iron & Metal, Inc., the Northern District of Indiana ruled that the attorney-client privilege doesn’t protect a lawyer’s emails to environmental contractors when the communications concern remediation as opposed to litigation. This case provides a good overview of the protections afforded by the attorney-client privilege and the work-product doctrine in the environmental law context.
At issue are Hartford Iron’s communications with environmental contractors Keramida, Inc. and CH2M Hill, Inc. which were the subject of a motion to compel filed by Valley Forge. Following an in camera review of 185 emails, the court concluded that the evidence reflects that “….Hartford Iron retained Keramida and CH2M as environmental contractors for the primary purpose of providing environmental consulting advice and service to Hartford Iron in designing and constructing a new stormwater management system, not because Hartford Iron’s counsel needed them to “translate” information into a useable form so that counsel could render legal advice.”
The Court did find that certain of the emails were subject to the work-product doctrine as the communications were prepared for the purposes of litigation and that IDEM and EPA already had filed suit against Hartford Iron.
Despite the best efforts of lawyers, not all communications are privileged. The legal privileges are narrowly construed and generally do not protect communications with environmental consultants.
On Tuesday, April 11th, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit granted EPA’s motion to continue oral argument and indefinitely delay any decision on challenges to the agency’s 2015 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone in the case of Murray Energy Corp. v. EPA, Case No. 15-1385. The Clean Air Act requires EPA to issue NAAQS for certain criteria air pollutants, like ozone, and review those NAAQS every five years. The NAAQS establish the permissible levels of air pollutants in the ambient air. If an area has pollution at levels above the NAAQS, it is classified as a nonattainment area. States with nonattainment areas are required to create and implement plans, under EPA’s oversight, to reduce air pollutants to levels below the NAAQS.
Prior to the rule at issue, EPA last revised the ozone NAAQS in 2008, setting the primary and secondary ozone standards at 75 parts per billion (ppb). Shortly after President Obama took office in 2009, EPA began reviewing the NAAQS and conducted extensive scientific, medical, technical and policy research. EPA found that ozone was strongly linked to serious health effects, such as triggering asthma attacks and other respiratory effects. Based on that research, in 2015, EPA issued a revised NAAQS for ozone, lowering the primary and secondary standards to 70 ppb. Numerous parties challenged the 2015 ozone NAAQS in the D.C. Circuit Court – industry challengers claimed the rule was too stringent, while environmental and public health organizations claimed it was not protective enough.
Waters of the United States Case Going Forward in Supreme Court Despite Trump Executive Order To Rescind or Revise the Rule
The controversial Waters of the United States (WOTUS) Rule, promulgated under the Obama Administration, will have its day in the U.S. Supreme Court, despite the Trump Administration’s efforts to stall that litigation while the rule is being revised by the new administration.
As previously discussed in this blog, the WOTUS Rule, also called the Clean Water Rule, was published by U.S. EPA and Army Corps of Engineers on June 29, 2015. The WOTUS Rule defines the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA). The CWA limits its jurisdiction to “navigable waters”, which are defined obliquely as “the waters of the United States, including the territorial seas.” 33 U.S.C. § 1361(7). U.S. EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers have attempted numerous times to define “waters of the United States”, and thereby define the jurisdictional scope of the CWA. Every such effort has been met with legal court challenges, with the previous definition being struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court in a plurality decision. Rapanos v. United States, 547 U.S. 715 (2006).